Hydraulic fracturing, also referred to as fracking, is a processed used by drilling companies to extract shale oil, coalbed gas deposits, and natural gas from beneath the ground. It is more effective than regular drilling methods.
Industry engineers often refer the time when underground fractures are opened as fracking. However, the rest of us know it as the entire procedure that takes place before and after.
Fracking may be harmful to the environment, but it is also very profitable. Some reports state that the United States has increased the amount of accessible gas and gas greatly.
The position of a fracking well can be vertical or sideways. The simplest way is to drill a hole straight to the ground. For the deposits that are harder to reach, oil companies will rotate the machinery horizontally into the correct underground rock.
A 5 to 7 acre plot of land is required for the operation to start. On this land, construction vehicles clear roads and build temporary housing. The time required is half a month. Afterwards, drilling commences and continues for the next month.
After the well has been created, a chemical mixture of water and mud is poured down into the space. Metal pipes are inserted and held in place using cement. Afterwards, the drilling rig is moved away. An explosion is made using dynamite to clear a large gap.
Pumping hoses pour in many gallons of fracking fluid to force out the oil. It generally comprises of water and sand. T
he high pressure causes the stored resources to move out of the cracks underground. Remaining fluid is kept inside storage tanks for future use.
When gas escapes from the tanks, it is not kept by the companies. It would be too challenging and costly to trap it. As an alternative, it is burned off in large amounts in a process known as flaring.
A gas well has a large pipe that connects the resource to where it will be kept and eventually sold. Oil tankers are used commonly. Each well can create from $1 million to $5 million revenue excluding jobs. It can stay open for 2 to 4 decades.
Fracking fluid is known to be bad for human health. It can cause conditions such as cancer, brain issues, and heart problems. Alarmingly, the fluid is making its way into our air and water systems.
The resulting waste water contains dangerous chemicals, radioactive materials (NORM), oil, and grease. It cannot be filtered using regular facilities, meaning that it is dumped out into the open. It is sprayed onto surface water and roads.